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Solid Waste based Environment Function Materials 固废环境功能材料

Solid Waste based Environment Function Materials

 

Biomass refers to all kinds of organism in nature produced through photosynthesis. Biomass are renewable, wide distributed and have low pollution impact to environment. Biomass carbon is a kind of porous carbon processed from biomass, including wood, forest waste, agricultural waste, aquatic plants, oil plants, animal manure, urban and industrial organic waste, etc. Carbon materials are widely used in metallurgy, chemical industry, machinery, electronics, aviation and other fields for its unique advantages such as heat resistance, high thermal conductivity, good chemical inertia and high electrical conductivity. In recent years, due to the shortage of fossil resources, the development and application of traditional carbon materials have been limited. The FunMat group uses various types of biomass waste as carbon source, to prepare porous carbon materials with different pore size and morphology, and to modify and further enhance its performance by activating, doping, and the introduction of functional groups, and then explore the application in environmental related fields such as energy storage, catalysis, separation, adsorption of pollutants.

  • Electrochemical Supercapacitors

Supercapacitor is a new type of ideal, environmental-friendly energy storage device that is safe, reliable and has long durability (1-500k times cycling) and huge storage capacitance. The energy density of supercapacitor is hundreds times higher than conventional capacitors, and the power density is two orders of magnitude higher than conventional battery. The performance of the supercapacitor is mainly determined by the manufacturing technology, the composition of the electrolyte, the quality of the membrane and the assembly process. The preparation of new high performance electrode material is the key for the development of supercapacitor. It is our research focus to reuse and functionalize the environmental solid waste/biomass, and to make the advanced three-dimensional carbon material and composite electrode materials.

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Fig 4. Reuse of solid waste as porous carbon electrode for energy storage device.

  • High specific energy Lithium Sulfur battery and its interface study

With the growing demand for energy, and deteriorating environmental pollution issue due to the rapid development of the global economy, the development of the secondary battery with high energy density, long cycling durability, high safety, environmental benign and low cost is of great significance in the area of energy storage. Compared with traditional secondary batteries such as lead-acid batteries and nickel cadmium batteries, lithium sulfur battery has significant advantages of high energy density, long cycle life, and environmental friendly. The typical lithium sulfur battery is composed of a positive electrode, a lithium or a lithium storage material as cathode, a separator and electrolyte. FunMat group focused on the development of sulfur composite anode materials, of which the most important subject is the combination of sulfur and mesoporous carbon material from biomass solid waste. The modification of sulfur anode composite material and the in-situ infrared spectroscopy characterization of the polysulfide lithium intermediates transport process and the formation mechanism of lithium dendrites at the electrode interface are the major focus of our research.

 


 

固废环境功能材料

 

生 物质(biomass)是指通过光合作用而产生的各种有机体,即一切有生命的可以生长的有机物质通称为生物质。其特点为可再生、低污染、分布广泛。生物质 碳,是由生物质包括木材、森林废弃物、农业废弃物、水生植物、油料植物、动物粪便、城市和工业有机废弃物等加工而形成的一种多孔碳。碳材料以其独特的耐热 性、高导热性、良好的化学惰性、高电导性等优点,在冶金、化工、机械、电子、航空等领域广泛应用。近年来,由于化石资源的短缺,传统碳材料的发展和应用受 到了限制。FunMat课题组利用各类生物质固废作为碳源,以制备出具有不同孔径及形貌特征的多孔碳材料,通过活化、掺杂、引入官能团等手段对多孔碳材料 进行改性,进一步提升其性能并广泛应用于储能、催化、分离、污染物吸附等环境领域研究方向。

  • 电化学超级电容器

超 级电容器是一种无污染的新型储能装置,寿命超长(1-50万次)、安全可靠、储能巨大,是一种理想的储能装置。超级电容器的能量密度是传统电容器的几百 倍,功率密度高出电池两个数量级,很好地弥补了电池比功率低、大电流充放电性能差和传统电容器能量密度小的缺点。超级电容器的性能主要由制造技术、电解液 的组成、隔膜质量和组装工艺等决定。其中新型高性能电极材料的制备,是超级电容器研发的关键问题。 将环境固体废弃物功能化回收利用,制备先进的三维碳材料电极和复合电极材料,是我们的研究重点。

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Fig 4. Reuse of solid waste as porous carbon electrode for energy storage device.

  • 高比能锂硫电池及其界面问题研究

随 着全球经济快速发展对能源需求的不断增长以及环境污染的日益严重,发展具有高能量密度、长循环寿命、高安全性、绿色环保和低成本的二次电池在新能源领域具 有重大意义。与铅酸电池、镍镉电池等传统二次电池相比,锂硫电池具有能量密度高、循环寿命长、绿色环保等显著优点。典型的锂硫电池是以硫或含硫材料为正 极、锂或储锂材料为负极、隔膜和电解液构成。课题组的研究重点集中在硫正极复合材料方面,其中最重要的是硫与生物质固废所制备介孔碳材料复合的研究。硫正 极复合材料的改性,以及电极界面上多硫化锂中间产物输运过程、锂枝晶形成机理的原位红外光谱表征,是我们课题组的研究重点。